狱中杂记


  康熙五十一年三月,余在刑部狱,见死而由窦出者,日四三人。有洪洞令杜君者,作而言曰:“此疫作也。今天时顺正,死者尚稀,往岁多至日数十人。”余叩所以。杜君曰:“是疾易传染,遘者虽戚属不敢同卧起。而狱中为老监者四,监五室,禁卒居中央,牖其前以通明,屋极有窗以达气。旁四室则无之,而系囚常二百余。每薄暮下管键,矢溺皆闭其中,与饮食之气相薄,又隆冬,贫者席地而卧,春气动,鲜不疫矣。狱中成法,质明启钥,方夜中,生人与死者并踵顶而卧,无可旋避,此所以染者众也。又可怪者,大盗积贼,杀人重囚,气杰旺,染此者十不一二,或随有瘳,其骈死,皆轻系及牵连佐证法所不及者。”余曰:“京师有京兆狱,有五城御史司坊,何故刑部系囚之多至此?”杜君曰:“迩年狱讼,情稍重,京兆、五城即不敢专决;又九门提督所访缉纠诘,皆归刑部;而十四司正副郎好事者及书吏、狱官、禁卒,皆利系者之多,少有连,必多方钩致。苟入狱,不问罪之有无,必械手足,置老监,俾困苦不可忍,然后导以取保,出居于外,量其家之所有以为剂,而官与吏剖分焉。中家以上,皆竭资取保;其次‘求脱械居监外板屋,费亦数十金;惟极贫无依,则械系不稍宽,为标准以警其余。或同系,情罪重者,反出在外,而轻者、无罪者罹其毒。积忧愤,寝食违节,及病,又无医药,故往往至死。”余伏见圣上好生之德,同于往圣。每质狱词,必于死中求其生,而无辜者乃至此。傥仁人君子为上昌言:除死刑及发塞外重犯,其轻系及牵连未结正者,别置一所以羁之,手足毋械。所全活可数计哉?或曰:“狱旧有室五,名曰现监,讼而未结正者居之。傥举旧典,可小补也。杜君曰:“上推恩,凡职官居板屋。今贫者转系老监,而大盗有居板屋者。此中可细诘哉!不若别置一所,为拔本塞源之道也。”余同系朱翁、余生及在狱同官僧某,遘疫死,皆不应重罚。又某氏以不孝讼其子,左右邻械系入老监,号呼达旦。余感焉,以杜君言泛讯之,众言同,于是乎书。   凡死刑狱上,行刑者先俟于门外,使其党入索财物,名曰“斯罗”。富者就其戚属,贫则面语之。其极刑,曰:“顺我,即先刺心;否则,四肢解尽,心犹不死。”其绞缢,曰:“顺我,始缢即气绝;否则,三缢加别械,然后得死。”唯大辟无可要,然犹质其首。用此,富者赂数十百金,贫亦罄衣装;绝无有者,则治之如所言。主缚者亦然,不如所欲,缚时即先折筋骨。每岁大决,勾者十四三,留者十六七,皆缚至西市待命。其伤于缚者,即幸留,病数月乃瘳,或竟成痼疾。余尝就老胥而问焉:“彼于刑者、缚者,非相仇也,期有得耳;果无有,终亦稍宽之,非仁术乎?”曰:“是立法以警其余,且惩后也;不如此,则人有幸心。”主梏扑者亦然。余同逮以木讯者三人:一人予三十金,骨微伤,病间月;一人倍之,伤肤,兼旬愈;一人六倍,即夕行步如平常。或叩之曰:“罪人有无不均,既各有得,何必更以多寡为差?”曰:“无差,谁为多与者?”孟子曰:“术不可不慎。”信夫!   部中老胥,家藏伪章,文书下行直省,多潜易之,增减要语,奉行者莫辨也。其上闻及移关诸部,犹未敢然。功令:大盗未杀人及他犯同谋多人者,止主谋一二人立决;余经秋审皆减等发配。狱词上,中有立决者,行刑人先俟于门外。命下,遂缚以出,不羁晷刻。有某姓兄弟以把持公仓,法应立决,狱具矣,胥某谓曰:“予我千金,吾生若。”叩其术,曰:“是无难,别具本章,狱词无易,取案末独身无亲戚者二人易汝名,俟封奏时潜易之而已。”其同事者曰:“是可欺死者,而不能欺主谳者,倘复请之,吾辈无生理矣。”胥某笑曰:“复请之,吾辈无生理,而主谳者亦各罢去。彼不能以二人之命易其官,则吾辈终无死道也。”竟行之,案末二人立决。主者口呿舌挢,终不敢诘。余在狱,犹见某姓,狱中人群指曰:“是以某某易其首者。”胥某一夕暴卒,众皆以为冥谪云。   凡杀人,狱词无谋、故者,经秋审入矜疑,即免死。吏因以巧法。有郭四者,凡四杀人,复以矜疑减等,随遇赦。将出,日与其徒置酒酣歌达曙。或叩以往事,一一详述之,意色扬扬,若自矜诩。噫!渫恶吏忍于鬻狱,无责也;而道之不明,良吏亦多以脱人于死为功,而不求其情,其枉民也亦甚矣哉!   奸民久于狱,与胥卒表里,颇有奇羡。山阴李姓以杀人系狱,每岁致数百金。康熙四十八年,以赦出。居数月,漠然无所事。其乡人有杀人者,因代承之。盖以律非故杀,必久系,终无死法也。五十一年,复援赦减等谪戍,叹曰:“吾不得复入此矣!”故例:谪戍者移顺天府羁候。时方冬停遣,李具状求在狱候春发遣,至再三,不得所请,怅然而出。
  kang xi wu shi yi nian san yue ,yu zai xing bu yu ,jian si er you zuo chu zhe ,ri si san ren 。you hong dong ling du jun zhe ,zuo er yan yue :“ci yi zuo ye 。jin tian shi shun zheng ,si zhe shang xi ,wang sui duo zhi ri shu shi ren 。”yu zuo suo yi 。du jun yue :“shi ji yi chuan ran ,zuo zhe sui qi shu bu gan tong wo qi 。er yu zhong wei lao jian zhe si ,jian wu shi ,jin zu ju zhong yang ,zuo qi qian yi tong ming ,wu ji you chuang yi da qi 。pang si shi ze wu zhi ,er xi qiu chang er bai yu 。mei bao mu xia guan jian ,shi ni jie bi qi zhong ,yu yin shi zhi qi xiang bao ,you long dong ,pin zhe xi di er wo ,chun qi dong ,xian bu yi yi 。yu zhong cheng fa ,zhi ming qi yue ,fang ye zhong ,sheng ren yu si zhe bing zuo ding er wo ,wu ke xuan bi ,ci suo yi ran zhe zhong ye 。you ke guai zhe ,da dao ji zei ,sha ren zhong qiu ,qi jie wang ,ran ci zhe shi bu yi er ,huo sui you zuo ,qi zuo si ,jie qing xi ji qian lian zuo zheng fa suo bu ji zhe 。”yu yue :“jing shi you jing zhao yu ,you wu cheng yu shi si fang ,he gu xing bu xi qiu zhi duo zhi ci ?”du jun yue :“zuo nian yu song ,qing shao zhong ,jing zhao 、wu cheng ji bu gan zhuan jue ;you jiu men ti du suo fang ji jiu zuo ,jie gui xing bu ;er shi si si zheng fu lang hao shi zhe ji shu li 、yu guan 、jin zu ,jie li xi zhe zhi duo ,shao you lian ,bi duo fang gou zhi 。gou ru yu ,bu wen zui zhi you wu ,bi xie shou zu ,zhi lao jian ,zuo kun ku bu ke ren ,ran hou dao yi qu bao ,chu ju yu wai ,liang qi jia zhi suo you yi wei ji ,er guan yu li po fen yan 。zhong jia yi shang ,jie jie zi qu bao ;qi ci ‘qiu tuo xie ju jian wai ban wu ,fei yi shu shi jin ;wei ji pin wu yi ,ze xie xi bu shao kuan ,wei biao zhun yi jing qi yu 。huo tong xi ,qing zui zhong zhe ,fan chu zai wai ,er qing zhe 、wu zui zhe zuo qi du 。ji you fen ,qin shi wei jie ,ji bing ,you wu yi yao ,gu wang wang zhi si 。”yu fu jian sheng shang hao sheng zhi de ,tong yu wang sheng 。mei zhi yu ci ,bi yu si zhong qiu qi sheng ,er wu gu zhe nai zhi ci 。zuo ren ren jun zi wei shang chang yan :chu si xing ji fa sai wai zhong fan ,qi qing xi ji qian lian wei jie zheng zhe ,bie zhi yi suo yi zuo zhi ,shou zu wu xie 。suo quan huo ke shu ji zai ?huo yue :“yu jiu you shi wu ,ming yue xian jian ,song er wei jie zheng zhe ju zhi 。zuo ju jiu dian ,ke xiao bu ye 。du jun yue :“shang tui en ,fan zhi guan ju ban wu 。jin pin zhe zhuan xi lao jian ,er da dao you ju ban wu zhe 。ci zhong ke xi zuo zai !bu ruo bie zhi yi suo ,wei ba ben sai yuan zhi dao ye 。”yu tong xi zhu weng 、yu sheng ji zai yu tong guan seng mou ,zuo yi si ,jie bu ying zhong fa 。you mou shi yi bu xiao song qi zi ,zuo you lin xie xi ru lao jian ,hao hu da dan 。yu gan yan ,yi du jun yan fan xun zhi ,zhong yan tong ,yu shi hu shu 。   fan si xing yu shang ,xing xing zhe xian zuo yu men wai ,shi qi dang ru suo cai wu ,ming yue “si luo ”。fu zhe jiu qi qi shu ,pin ze mian yu zhi 。qi ji xing ,yue :“shun wo ,ji xian ci xin ;fou ze ,si zhi jie jin ,xin you bu si 。”qi jiao zuo ,yue :“shun wo ,shi zuo ji qi jue ;fou ze ,san zuo jia bie xie ,ran hou de si 。”wei da bi wu ke yao ,ran you zhi qi shou 。yong ci ,fu zhe lu shu shi bai jin ,pin yi zuo yi zhuang ;jue wu you zhe ,ze zhi zhi ru suo yan 。zhu fu zhe yi ran ,bu ru suo yu ,fu shi ji xian zhe jin gu 。mei sui da jue ,gou zhe shi si san ,liu zhe shi liu qi ,jie fu zhi xi shi dai ming 。qi shang yu fu zhe ,ji xing liu ,bing shu yue nai zuo ,huo jing cheng zuo ji 。yu chang jiu lao zuo er wen yan :“bi yu xing zhe 、fu zhe ,fei xiang chou ye ,qi you de er ;guo wu you ,zhong yi shao kuan zhi ,fei ren shu hu ?”yue :“shi li fa yi jing qi yu ,qie cheng hou ye ;bu ru ci ,ze ren you xing xin 。”zhu zuo pu zhe yi ran 。yu tong dai yi mu xun zhe san ren :yi ren yu san shi jin ,gu wei shang ,bing jian yue ;yi ren bei zhi ,shang fu ,jian xun yu ;yi ren liu bei ,ji xi xing bu ru ping chang 。huo zuo zhi yue :“zui ren you wu bu jun ,ji ge you de ,he bi geng yi duo gua wei cha ?”yue :“wu cha ,shui wei duo yu zhe ?”meng zi yue :“shu bu ke bu shen 。”xin fu !   bu zhong lao zuo ,jia cang wei zhang ,wen shu xia xing zhi sheng ,duo qian yi zhi ,zeng jian yao yu ,feng xing zhe mo bian ye 。qi shang wen ji yi guan zhu bu ,you wei gan ran 。gong ling :da dao wei sha ren ji ta fan tong mou duo ren zhe ,zhi zhu mou yi er ren li jue ;yu jing qiu shen jie jian deng fa pei 。yu ci shang ,zhong you li jue zhe ,xing xing ren xian zuo yu men wai 。ming xia ,sui fu yi chu ,bu zuo zuo ke 。you mou xing xiong di yi ba chi gong cang ,fa ying li jue ,yu ju yi ,zuo mou wei yue :“yu wo qian jin ,wu sheng ruo 。”zuo qi shu ,yue :“shi wu nan ,bie ju ben zhang ,yu ci wu yi ,qu an mo du shen wu qin qi zhe er ren yi ru ming ,zuo feng zou shi qian yi zhi er yi 。”qi tong shi zhe yue :“shi ke qi si zhe ,er bu neng qi zhu zuo zhe ,tang fu qing zhi ,wu bei wu sheng li yi 。”zuo mou xiao yue :“fu qing zhi ,wu bei wu sheng li ,er zhu zuo zhe yi ge ba qu 。bi bu neng yi er ren zhi ming yi qi guan ,ze wu bei zhong wu si dao ye 。”jing xing zhi ,an mo er ren li jue 。zhu zhe kou she zuo ,zhong bu gan zuo 。yu zai yu ,you jian mou xing ,yu zhong ren qun zhi yue :“shi yi mou mou yi qi shou zhe 。”zuo mou yi xi bao zu ,zhong jie yi wei zuo zuo yun 。   fan sha ren ,yu ci wu mou 、gu zhe ,jing qiu shen ru zuo yi ,ji mian si 。li yin yi qiao fa 。you guo si zhe ,fan si sha ren ,fu yi zuo yi jian deng ,sui yu she 。jiang chu ,ri yu qi tu zhi jiu han ge da shu 。huo zuo yi wang shi ,yi yi xiang shu zhi ,yi se yang yang ,ruo zi zuo zuo 。zuo !zuo e li ren yu zuo yu ,wu ze ye ;er dao zhi bu ming ,liang li yi duo yi tuo ren yu si wei gong ,er bu qiu qi qing ,qi wang min ye yi shen yi zai !   jian min jiu yu yu ,yu zuo zu biao li ,po you qi xian 。shan yin li xing yi sha ren xi yu ,mei sui zhi shu bai jin 。kang xi si shi ba nian ,yi she chu 。ju shu yue ,mo ran wu suo shi 。qi xiang ren you sha ren zhe ,yin dai cheng zhi 。gai yi lv fei gu sha ,bi jiu xi ,zhong wu si fa ye 。wu shi yi nian ,fu yuan she jian deng zuo shu ,tan yue :“wu bu de fu ru ci yi !”gu li :zuo shu zhe yi shun tian fu zuo hou 。shi fang dong ting qian ,li ju zhuang qiu zai yu hou chun fa qian ,zhi zai san ,bu de suo qing ,zuo ran er chu 。
※提示:拼音为程序生成,因此多音字的拼音可能不准确。

注释





译文及注释



译文  康熙五十一年三月里,当我被关在刑部监狱的时候,看见犯人死了,由墙洞里拖出去,平均每天总有三四个,不觉心里奇怪。有个曾经做过洪洞县长的杜君,站起来说:“这是生瘟疫了。现在天时正常,死的还少;过去有多到一天死十几个的。”我问是什么原因。杜君说:“这种病容易传染,生这种病的,纵然是亲人,也不敢住在一起。这监狱一共有四座老监房。每座监房有五个房间:狱卒住在当中的一间,前面有大窗通光线,屋顶有小窗透空气;其余四个房间都没有窗,可是关的犯人经常有两百多。每天天还没黑,就上锁了,大小便都在房间里,和吃饭喝水的气味混在一道。加上寒冬腊月,没钱的犯人睡在地上,等到春气一动,没有不发病的
展开阅读全文 ∨

拼音注释





yi wen ji zhu shi



yi wen   kang xi wu shi yi nian san yue li ,dang wo bei guan zai xing bu jian yu de shi hou ,kan jian fan ren si liao ,you qiang dong li tuo chu qu ,ping jun mei tian zong you san si ge ,bu jue xin li qi guai 。you ge zeng jing zuo guo hong dong xian chang de du jun ,zhan qi lai shuo :“zhe shi sheng wen yi liao 。xian zai tian shi zheng chang ,si de huan shao ;guo qu you duo dao yi tian si shi ji ge de 。”wo wen shi shi me yuan yin 。du jun shuo :“zhe zhong bing rong yi chuan ran ,sheng zhe zhong bing de ,zong ran shi qin ren ,ye bu gan zhu zai yi qi 。zhe jian yu yi gong you si zuo lao jian fang 。mei zuo jian fang you wu ge fang jian :yu zu zhu zai dang zhong de yi jian ,qian mian you da chuang tong guang xian ,wu ding you xiao chuang tou kong qi ;qi yu si ge fang jian du mei you chuang ,ke shi guan de fan ren jing chang you liang bai duo 。mei tian tian huan mei hei ,jiu shang suo liao ,da xiao bian du zai fang jian li ,he chi fan he shui de qi wei hun zai yi dao 。jia shang han dong la yue ,mei qian de fan ren shui zai di shang ,deng dao chun qi yi dong ,mei you bu fa bing de
zhan kai yue du quan wen ∨

相关问题?

《狱中杂记》的作者是谁?

《狱中杂记》的作者是"方苞"。